Endemic and near-endemic taxa

27) Ensure the preservation of species, subspecies and populations such as the Saimaa ringed seal, landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), and plants in the Primula nutans group, which are endemic or almost endemic to Finland. Seek to enhance the viability of these species and groups of species through administrative (regulation of fishing, monitoring and communications) and conservation biology measures; for example, by preparing and implementing population management plans for threatened fish and game species.

Responsible institutions: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of the Environment

Schedule: 2013–2020

Status in 2018: The preservation of plants in the Primula nutans group has been improved in their most important habitats, the coasts of the Bothnian Bay. The distribution of these species has been considered in land use planning and other projects. The habitats of the species, i.e. shallow coastal meadows, have been surveyed and protected as habitat types under the Nature Conservation Act as well as managed as sites receiving environmental aid. The biology and required conservation actions of the species have been examined in several doctoral theses completed at the University of Oulu in the 2000s. The number of suitable habitats has increased, and in this regard the conservation status of coastal meadows has improved in the past decades. The most viable populations of Primula nutans are situated in protected areas or coastal meadows used for grazing. All populations of Puccinellia phryganodes and Arctophila fulva are situated in protected areas, and their habitats have been managed. The restauration of populations of Primula nutans have been attempted in the ESCAPE Life+ project in 2013–2017.

The protection of the Saimaa ringed seal has been improved through various projects, for example the Saimaa Ringed Seal LIFE was implemented in 2013-2018. A strategy and action plan for protecting the Saimaa ringed seal was completed in 2017. The state of the species has been monitored continuously, and the information has been saved to a database administered by Metsähallitus. Volunteers have participated in the monitoring and the building of winter nests. The intensified protection and restrictions of fishing have born fruit. The population size is estimated to be 370-380 individuals (the situation in autumn 2018).

The protection of the landlocked salmon has been intensified by prohibiting fishing of individuals with an intact adipose fin in the waters of Vuoksi and Hiiltolanjoki. In addition, the areas suitable for the reproduction of the landlocked salmon and the landlocked brown trout have been expanded as a part of the Government’s Luontopolitiikka project. A preliminary version of the management plan for the sea trout has been completed. A monitoring group has been instated to improve the protection and management of the population of the Arctic char in Kuolimo.

Further information: Protected species at the joint website of Finland’s environmental administration https://www.ymparisto.fi/en-US/Nature/Species/Protected_species

ESCAPE – Ex-Situ Conservation of Finnish Native Plant Species https://www.luomus.fi/en/ex-situ-conservation-finnish-native-plant-species