Bioenergy is derived from renewable organic sources. In Finland, major sources of biomass for bioenergy are forests and agricultural lands. Also household waste is used for burning in heating plants.
Electricity and heat production resulted in 68,3 TWh in 2013. A quarter of it was produced with wood fuels; majority with black liquor and other concentrated liquors. In general the share of energy produced in biofuels has increased during the last 10 years.
A major share of the bioenergy material comes from forestry as side products or as residue of wood production. Logging residues include branches, bark, tops, stumps, roots and needles. Industries, CHPs and district heating plants use solid wood fuels to produce electricity and heat energy. Such sources include forest chips, bark and sawdust.
Many households use firewood for heating. Ca. 5 % of the used energy is produced with small-scale combustion of wood. Wood chips and sawdust are processed further to biofuels, for example to pellets or briquettes. The effective use of wood chips has increased during the 2000s.
Some bioenergy sources are cultivated for production, such as reed canary grass. In 2000sbioenergy production was supported by EU subsidies. After the subsidies ended the size of bioenergy crops have started to decrease. In 2013, 6 600 hectares of farmland were under reed canary production. The yields have reduced by half from 2011 to 2013, when the yield was 21 million kilograms.
Common reed and energy willow have also been tested for energy use. Vegetable oils are processed from oil plant crops and used for heating. In Finland such plants include turnip rape, oilseed rape and flax. Turnip rape is also processed to biodiesel. In 2013, turnip rape yield was 28 million kilograms.
- Updated (25.03.2015)