FA13 Directive farmland species

  This is an impact (I) indicator. DPSIR = drivers, pressures, state, impact, responses.
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Status of Habitats Directive species


Farmland habitats are the primary habitat of five species of the EU Habitats Directive and five species of the Birds Directive. This equals 7% of all species listed in these directives.

Four Habitats Directive's farmland species occur in the boreal region. The conservation status of all of the four species is unfavourable-inadequate. The conservation status of the northern subspecies of woodland ringlet occurring in the alpine region was evaluated as favourable.

Farmland Habitats Directive's species are all associated with traditional agricultural practices. Their conservation status is largely determined by the management and conservation of traditional rural biotopes (see FA15).

The populations of clouded apollo and marsh fritillary are fragmented. Their habitats have been managed, but until now this been insufficient in scope. The habitat requirements and population structure of clouded apollo have been studied in some detail. Some experiments have also been made at reintroducing individuals to sites that have been restored to a state that should be favourable for the species.

Agrimonia pilosa occurs in very limited area and its stands are small. The future of this species relies entirely on the management of suitable habitats. The population of European polecat fluctuates considerably. In the 20th century the population was low because of persecution and at the moment because of strong and rival American mink population.

Habitats Directive
European Polecat Mustela putorius
Woodland Ringlet Erebia medusa ssp. polaris
Marsh Fritillary Euphydryas aurinia
Clouded Apollo Parnassius mnemosyne
Agrimony Agrimonia pilosa
Birds Directive
Corn Crake Crex crex
Great Snipe Gallinago media
Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio
Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria
Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana

Development of Birds Directive species

Four out of five Birds Directive species declined during the 20th century prior to 1990. In the case of the Great Snipe the decline strated already during the first half of the century whereas the Ortolan Bunting, Barred Warbler and Corn Crake only started to decline after the intensification of farming practices in the 1960s and 70s.

Since 1990 the small number of annually observed Great Snipes has shown no trend. Despite a temporary decline at the turn of the millennium the population of Red-Backed Shrike seems also to have remained stable over the whole period 1990-2008. The Ortolan Bunting and Barred Warbler have continued to decline. The only increasing farmland Directive bird species is the Corn Crake - the numbers of singing Corn Crakes have clearly recovered since 1990.


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