FO14 Directive forest species

  This is an impact (I) indicator. DPSIR = drivers, pressures, state, impact, responses.  
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Status of Habitats Directive Species


EU Habitats Directive species' status has been reported in Finland twice, in 2007 and 2013. All of the 33 forest species listed in the EU Habitats Directive occur in the Boreal region while four of these can also be found in the alpine region. The group consists mainly of mosses, vascular plants, mammals and beetles. Three species of butterflies, one snail (Gastropoda) and one heteroptera are also included.

The conservation status of most of these species has been evaluated as unfavourable-inadequate. Four species ? narrow-mouthed whorl snail, hermit beetle, Scarce Fritillary and glade fern - have been included in the least threatened class, ie. their conservation status has been evaluated as favourable.

The least favourable conservation status has been assigned for four species, flat bark beetle, eastern pasqueflower, green shield-moss and Cephalozia macounii (a liverwort). The conservation status of the latter species is even expected to continue to deteriorate in the future.

Nearly all of the forest-dwelling Directive beetle species and three mosses require dead wood habitats. Their inadequate conservation status is mainly due to the low volume of dead wood not only in commercial forest, but also in most protected areas (FO6).


Habitats Directive species

Wolverine Gulo gulo
Mountain Hare Lepus timidus
Brandt's Bat Myotis brandtii
Whiskered Bat Myotis mystacinus
Siberian Flying Squirrel Pteromys volans
Forest Reindeer Rangifer tarandus fennicus
Narrow-mouthed Whorl Snail Vertigo angustior
(A beetle) Agathidium pulchellum
(A beetle) Boros schneideri
(A beetle) Corticaria planula
Flat Bark Beetle Cucujus cinnaberinus
(A beetle) Mesosa myops
(A beetle) Xyletinus tremulicola
Hermit Beetle Osmoderma eremita
(A beetle) Oxyporus mannerheimii
False Darkling Beetle Phryganophilus ruficollis
(A beetle) Stephanopachys linearis
(A beetle) Stephanopachys substriatus
Scarce Fritillary Euphydryas maturna
(A moth) Xestia borealis
(A moth) Xestia brunneopicta
(A Heteroptera) Aradus angularis
Fairy Slipper Calypso bulbosa
Drooping Woodreed Cinna latifolia
Lady's Slipper Cypripedium calceolus
Glade Fern Diplazium sibiricum
Eastern Pasqueflower Pulsatilla patens
Green Shield-moss Buxbaumia viridis
(A liverwort) Cephalozia macounii
(A moss) Cynodontium suecicum
(A moss) Dicranum viride
(A moss) Herzogiella turfacea
(A moss) Plagiomnium drummondii

Status of Birds Directive species

 More than half of the Birds Directive forest species? populations were descending before year 1990. Most common reasons for the declining trends were hunting and raptor persecution. The structural changes of forests, such as reducing dead wood volumes, caused the decline of the Piciformes. The populations of three species were strengthening.

After 1990 decreasing trends have been rarer. The population of western hunny buzzard has started to decrease and the populations of capercaillie and black grouse have continued the declining trend. The grouse populations began to decline already in the 1960s and the trend is still similar. The populations of golden eagle and white-backed woodpecker have increased thanks to effective conservation.


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