Research and development use

In principle, all research and/or development work is included in the protocol’s scope of application when it is targeted at the hereditary elements of the biological material (DNA or RNA) or at biochemical components (for example, enzymes, metabolites). If biological material is used e.g. for enzyme production or in biotech applications, it is explicitly part of the genetic resources mentioned in the Nagoya Protocol. However, if plant extracts, for example, are utilised for the development work, it is more difficult to draw the line. In situations where genetic resources are utilised in accordance with traditional knowledge of indigenous people, the use is always covered by the Nagoya Protocol.

The different parties to the Protocol may have different concepts of genetic resources or have different requirements for e.g. access to genetic resources utilised in basic research or disease diagnostics as opposed to those intended for commercial use. The genetic resource’s country of origin may also have conditions for further utilisation of DNA sequences or for recording them into public databases. This information can be found from the legislation of the providing country, on the online pages of the national competent authority or from the National Focal Point. Links and contact information for the parties to the protocol are available in the international information exchange platform (Access and Benefit Sharing Clearing-house; ABSCH), under the country in question.